Ringworm is a skin disease caused by a fungus. Because the lesions are often circular and look like a worm curling up in the tissue. it was once thought to be caused by a worm. There is no worm involved with the disease.

What Causes ringworm?

There are four fungal species affecting dogs which can cause ringworm. These may also affect humans. The fungi live in hair follicles and cause the hair shafts to break off at the skin line. This usually results in round patches of hair loss. As the fungus multiplies, the lesions may become irregularly shaped and spread over the dog's body. 

How long does it take to get Ringworms?

Ringworm Transmission: The incubation period is 10-12 days. This means that following exposure to the fungus, about 10-12 days will pass before any lesions occur.

1 Direct contact between infected and non-infected individuals. It may be passed from dogs to cats to people and visa versa.

2. If your child has ringworm, he or she may have acquired it from your pet or from another child at school. Adult humans usually are resistant to infection unless there is a break in the skin (a scratch, etc.), but children are quite susceptible.

3. Transmission may also occur from the infected environment. The fungal spores may live in bedding or carpet for several months.  (If you suspect this, they can be killed with a dilution of chlorine bleach and water (1 pint of chlorine bleach in a gallon of water) (500 ml in 4 liters) where it is feasible to use it.

DIAGNOSIS is made by identification of the typical ringworm lesions on the skin, culture of the hair for the fungus (most accurate but it takes 2-3 weeks to culture) and/or fluorescence of the infected hairs under a special light (only two of the species show up this way).


There are several means of treatment. The specific method(s) chosen for your dog will depend on the severity of the infection, how many pets are involved, if there are children in the household, and how difficult it will be to disinfect your pets' environment. The one's that are appropriate for your situation are marked.


Topical antifungal cream

Medicated baths


Treatment will not produce immediate results.  It will take 1-2 weeks for results and the areas of hair loss may get larger before they begin to get smaller.  If the skin doesn’t appear better within two weeks, your dog  needs be checked again. Your dog will remain contagious for about three weeks or more depending on the prescribed treatment.

When treatment is completed, ringworm should be cured. Although a carrier state can exist, this usually occurs because treatment is not long enough or aggressive enough or because there is some underlying disease compromising the immune system.

  Ear Mites



Fleas are small insects found on every continent except Antarctica. Fleas not only annoy dogs and people but can carry disease and cause other health problems.  

Flea Diseases and Disorders
Skin problems: Flea bites cause flea allergy dermatitis, a common allergic condition in dogs. They can also cause skin infection.

Internal parasites: Fleas transmit tapeworms, one of the most common intestinal parasites seen by pet owners.

Anemia: Puppies, geriatric and debilitated dogs infested with fleas can become anemic. Heavy infestations may even cause death.

Flea Life Cycle

Understanding the life cycle of the flea is necessary in order to control it. The flea has several stages to its life cycle. Adult fleas spend most of their time on the dog or cat - they must be dislodged to leave since they will not do so voluntarily. Despite this, when the flea population on the dog becomes excessive humans tend to be an acceptable alternative to the flea. The average life span of an adult flea is probably about 6 weeks - but fleas can live as long as a year under certain conditions. A female flea can lay 20 to 28 eggs a day. She may lay several hundred eggs over her life span. These eggs fall off the pet and develop where they land. They are small and can even develop in the cracks in wood floors or other small crevices. A larvae hatches from the flea egg. It takes as few as 9 days to as long as 200 days to go through its growth stages. At this time is forms a pupae and waits for the right time to hatch. Fleas prefer temperatures of 65 to 80 degrees and humidity of 75 to 85 per cent. This range determines the period of time that fleas are a problem in your particular area. For some areas of the country, this is all year. In others, the flea season is relatively short. It is estimated that for every adult flea found on the pet, there are about 10 developing fleas in the pet's environment. Fleas are blind and like ticks attach to an animal by jumping to vibrations and heat until they land on passing food. 


Fleas tend to stay on the back near the tail and belly or around the head of the dog. Use a fine tooth flea comb and white paper or sheet  to determine if your dog has fleas. Put the dog on a white sheet if he is large or white paper if small and comb him. If you see dark specks on the white like fine pepper – you have fleas. That is the dried blood poop from the flea. If you are lucky, you will see the flea or comb one out – but they are fast and can jump right back on or worse into the carpet.   


  1. Treat your dog with a flea protection product.
  2. Fleas breed in the house – use products to kill them. You must clear the house or the dog will become re-infected.
  3. Keep your yard free of rotting matter and areas that are damp and hot so treat your yard as well should you find fleas on your dog.
  4. Treat the animal – Treat the house – Treat the yard – kill all the fleas in these three areas or your dog will be infested over and over and over.
  Ticks & Mosquitoes


Ticks are common external, blood sucking parasites that are found worldwide.  They appear as a small dark speck on your dog’s fur when they first jump on him and then,  when attached and engorged with blood, look like small growths, moles or even raisins. These parasites may infest a area in large numbers during certain times during the year and can spread several diseases to both dogs and their owners. 

Ticks may carry Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, several types of Ehrlichiosis, and other potentially deadly diseases. Prevalence of these diseases may be quite high in certain regions, making tick control a definite concern for pet owners. 


There are a number of ways to deal with ticks. The easiest solution is to use one of the tick killing products that keep them off and/or kill them if they attach. 

Frontline kills fleas and ticks effectively. Tick control lasts for 2 weeks to a month. The product should only be applied on a monthly basis but can be used in conjunction with other products for tick control if necessary. It works very well for flea control, so if that is also a problem it may be a good first choice.

Insect Repellent with permethrin in topical form for tick and flea control should be considered. It is a very effective tick repellant product and works for flea as well. It lasts for only hours but may be applied at intervals so it is possible to keep the problem under for a daily trip to the country.

Preventic collars can also be effective over a short period. They have the drawback of being toxic if ingested. 

Ticks may be removed using one of the tick-pulling products or forceps- tweezers. It is best not to touch the tick if possible due to the possibility of tick-borne diseases and to wash your hands thoroughly afterwards. There is a lot of fear of leaving part of the tick embedded in the dog when removing them but this rarely causes problems. However, should the animal scratch or act like the spot is bothering them, it is best to seek professional help. 

Risk for biting ticks is increased if:

1.      Tick-borne diseases have been diagnosed in your region. Your Vet will know.

2.      You take your dog camping, to wooded areas, grassy meadows hiking or hunting areas where ticks are found.

3.        Your dog is exposed to wildlife that are tick hosts (deer, rodents, raccoons, etc.). This can be your own yard as many of these animal visit at night.

4.        Your yard has dense shrubs, tall grass or leaf litter — common tick habitats.


Tick-borne Diseases:

Lyme disease,

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread by the bite of a deer tick. Early symptoms include a rash, fever and muscle aches. Later symptoms can include vision problems, seizures and cardiac arrthymia. According to the Centers for Disease Control, US cases have doubled since 1991


Ehrlichia are parasitic organisms, which are something like a
virus but are classed with bacteria. They attack the bone
marrow, crippling its ability to make the white blood cells
(leukocytes), which are an important component of the immune

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever,

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii (rick-ETT-cee-uh rick-ETT-cee-eye), which is carried by ticks. People usually start having fevers and feeling nauseous about a week after being bitten by a tick, although some people do not remember having had a tick bite. A few days after the fever begins, people who have Rocky Mountain spotted fever often have a rash, usually on their arms or ankles. They also may have pain in their joints, stomach pain, and diarrhea. Sometimes people with this disease are very sick and have to go to the hospital. 


Babesiosis is a tick-borne malaria like illness caused by species of the intraerythrocytic protozoan Babesia. Humans are opportunistic hosts for Babesia when bitten by nymph or adult ticks. In the United States, Babesiosis is frequently endemic in areas of the northeastern and northwestern United States, particularly Long Island, New York, and Nantucket & Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. 


Tularemia, or rabbit fever, is a bacterial disease associated with both animals and humans. Although many wild and domestic animals can be infected, the rabbit is most often involved in disease outbreaks. The disease occurs throughout the United States in all months of the year. The incidence, however, is higher for adults in early winter during rabbit hunting season and for children during the summer when ticks and deer flies are abundant. This disease is contracted by the bite of an infected tick, contact with fluids from infected deer flies or ticks, as well as other means.

This is for humans, not sure if it would work on dogs...

Tick Removal
A School Nurse has written the info below -- good enough to
share -- And it really works!!
A pediatrician believes this is the best way to remove a tick.  This is
great, because it works in those places where it's sometimes
difficult to get to with tweezers: between toes, in the middle of a
head full of dark hair, etc.
Apply a glob of liquid soap to a cotton ball. Cover the tick
with the soap-soaked cotton ball and let it stay on the repulsive
insect for a few seconds (15-20), after which the tick will come out
on it's own and be stuck to the cotton ball when you lift it away.
This technique has worked every time, and it's much less traumatic
for the patient. Unless someone is allergic to soap, this would not be
damaging in any way.


Mosquitoes are blood sucking insects that are widely distributed through out  the United States and can be a year-round concern in the southern states where temperatures and humidity  remain high over many months. Worldwide they are a common vector of disease, spreading viruses, protozoa and helminths to people and animals. Not only do mosquitoes spread diseases, they are annoying pests who can be a source of allergic skin reactions.

Mosquito facts:

  1. There are more than 200 different species of mosquitoes in the U.S.
  2. Biting mosquitoes are as irritating to your dog as they are to you.
  3. Stress from biting can be severe with large populations of mosquitoes.
  4. Mosquitoes carry WEST NILE VIRUS

 Mosquito Diseases

West Nile Virus

West Nile Virus is a virus that is spread by the Culex species of mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected by feeding on infected birds, and then transmit the virus to humans and animals through bites. Once in the bloodstream, the virus multiplies and spreads. If the virus reaches the brain, the result is encephalitis -- an inflammation of the brain that can affect the entire nervous system. Although rare, encephalitis is the most serious complication associated with the virus. 

Skin Allergies

Skin irritation opens up the dog and human alike to other disease and conditions. 


Do not have standing water in your area.

Mosquitoes do not lay eggs in moving water.

Use insect repellant when outside in areas when Mosquitoes are around.

From Sue Moen:


"I have used their products for years as have friends. The garlic bits mostly but cedar spray and insect repelant and diatomaceous earth (that clogs the insects pores so they can not breathe) But have not used it on the animal - just around the house and yard."


  Dust Mites & other mites

These microscopic organisms, which are related to spiders, live in many homes and are found nearly everywhere in the world in all environments. Too small to see with the naked eye, dust mites live and breed in warm, humid environments — eating dead skin cells and nesting in dust-collecting bedding, fabric, carpet and furnishings. Their feces mixed with dust  becomes airborne allergens.

Dust mites are a leading cause of asthma in humans. For Dogs they appear to exceed flea allergy as the most common l skin test reaction. 30-80% of all dogs and cats who have skin allergy tests done are positive to dust  mite allergies.


Dermatophagoides farinae – dogs and cats allergic to this species.

Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cats only are allergic to this species

 For More Information: 





Scabies is a skin  infection caused by scabies mites (sarcoptes scabei).

These microsopic mites burrow into the dogs skin, acting like moles and storing their eggs in a trail behind them. The tunnels are visible as scaly thin lines on the dog’s skin.

Scabies mites prefer the dogs abdomen, chest, legs, and ears, but can affect any area of the dog’s skin. The itchy scalp and skin rashes occur because of an allergy to the scabies mite. Scabies is one of the most itching skin disorders in dogs and humans.


Scabies mites are usually spread by direct contact from host to host and can spread from dog to human and vice versa. However, scabies mites are only infective for 36 hours, which means that environmental decontamination is generally not necessary. Scabies infections on humans go away on their own, as the scabies mite is not able to complete its life cycle on the wrong host.

Associated with  dog mange:

Scabies Mange

  • You see only few scabs at your dog's skin. It looks like a scab caused by a scratch. Some hairless patches may appear.
  • Your dog suffers from steadily itching skin.
  • Actually, scabies is very rare in cultivated countries. Scabies mites cannot survive in clean places. They live in garbage dumps or similar surroundings. Scabies mites are mainly present in poor countries of the third world.

Demodectic Mange – Is caused by an immune system malfunction and not very itchy


Medicated baths and

Topical medication

cleaning of bedding and living area.




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